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1. Introduction
  1. Risk Management

  2. Who Are You, and Why Are You Here?

  3. Finding a Solution

2. Problem Definition
  1. What Needs Protecting?

  2. Who is Allowed Where?

3. Methods of Identification
  1. Reliability vs. Cost

  2. Combining Methods to Increase Reliability

  3. Security System Management

4. Access Control
  1. What You Have

  2. What You Know

  3. Who You Are

5. Other Security Systems Elements

  1. Building Design

  2. Piggybacking and Tailgating: Mantraps

  3. Camera Surveillance

  4. Security Guards

  5. Sensors and Alarms

  6. Visitors

6. The Human Element
  1. People: The Weakest Link

  2. People: The Strongest Backup

7. Site Design
  1. Layers

  2. Components

  3. Tactics

8. Controlling Site Access
  1. Entry Control Facility

  2. Zones of an Entry Control Facility

  3. Utilities and Automatition

9. Chosing the Right Solution
  1. Risk Tolerance vs. Cost

  2. Security System Design Considerations

  3. Building Security Design Considerations

Zones of an Entry Control Facility

1. Approach Zone

Starts from the installation boundary

Functions include:
• Reducing speed of incoming vehicles
• Performing sorting of traffic by vehicle type
• Providing adequate stacking distance
• Providing first opportunity to identify potential threats

Use of simple/reverse curves to reduce and control speed of traffic should be considered. The length of the approach zone should be maximixed to provide optimal stacking for traffic queue. If facility is congested and space is limited for additional lanes, consider use of reversible lanes at periods of peak demand.

Traffic sorting by vehicle type should be also considered.

2. Access Control Zone

Main controlling element of ECF. Provides access control and inspection capability.

Typical Features:
• Infrastructure to support manual and automated I.D. and inspection
• Canopy to protect against inclement weather, facilitate operations
• Minimum of two rejection points, one prior and one after the central I.D. point
• Facilitates inspections out of traffic lanes
• Gatehouse and additional sentry booths as required
• Typical to provide ballistic protection for guard facilities

3. Response Zone

Extends from end of access control zone to the point of “final denial”. Main function is to provide time for security personnel to react to a threat and close ECF if necessary. Design with a sufficient length to provide adequate reaction time for security personnel. “Final Denial” (i.e. barrier) will be provided at the end of the ECF to provide the capability to stop threat vehicles.

Response Zone - Barriers

Passive barrier continues until end of ECF
Active vehicle barrier typically used to provide “final denial”

Consider maximizing active barrier capacity based on available funds

Overwatch / Auxiliary Position

Additional position for security personnel beyond access control zone.
Location should afford personnel ability to assess threat, initiate alarms, activate final denial, and respond to the attack as authorized.
Site selected based on reaction time and line of fire considerations. May be elevated for improved safety and surveillance.

Safety Zone

Extends from the active and passive barriers surrounding the ECF:

• Since a threat vehicle may be contained in this area and explode, you must consider the effects of such an explosion on nearby personnel, buildings, or assets.
• An acceptable safety zone would be determined by the expected weight of explosive charge, the facility or asset to be protected, and the required level of protection.
• Should also consider operational hazards associated with potential inspection equipment.

If an adequate safety zone cannot be achieved, other alternatives should be considered or a decision made to accept additional risk.

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